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glossary

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A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

[A]

A Record

An A record is part of the zone file. It is used to point Internet traffic to an IP address. For example, you can use an "A record" to designate abc.yourdomain.com to send traffic to your web site at IP address 209.15.32.135. You can also designate xyz.yourdomain.com to go to a separate IP address. There is a service fee of $25.00 for A Record edits.

Affiliate Program

The program that allows current AZC customers to earn a commission for referring new hosting accounts to AZC.com.

Applet

A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with most other computers across a network. The current rule is that an applet can only make an Internet connection to the computer from which the applet was sent.

ARPANet

(Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) -- The precursor to the Internet. The landmark packet-switching network was established in 1969 by the US Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking that would survive a nuclear war.

ASCII

(American Standard Code for Information Interchange) -- The world-wide standard for the code numbers used by computers to epresent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through 1111111, plus parity.

ASP

ASP - Active Server Pages (ASP). ASP files, are a type of file extension for web page creation by Microsoft. ASP is ideally suited for MS Windows based web servers running on the intranet of an organization. In such organizations, the users of these Web servers can be easily accounted for and their usage closely monitored and regulated. It's not appropriate for a UNIX based shared hosting environment, as for security reasons the ASP processor must run as a CGI program, making it drastically inefficient and resource hungry.

Auto-responder

An automated email reply sent in response to each incoming message for a specific email address. This is quite useful when going on a trip, or when you will be out of the office for an extended period of time.You can set up a separate autoresponder for each email account under your hosting plan.

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[B]

Bandwidth

The amount of data that can be transmitted through a connection in a fixed amount of time. Bandwidth is usually measured in BPS (bits per second).

Bit

(Binary DigIT) -- A single digit number in base-2, in other words, either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second.

Bps

(Bits-Per-Second) -- A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 56k modem can move 56,000 bits per second.

Browser

Client software that is used to look at various kinds of Internet resources. Examples include Microsoft Internet Explorer, Opera, Mozilla, and Netscape Navigator.

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[C]

Catch-all Email Account

A type of email account designed to "catch" any email messages addressed to your domain (@yourdomain.com) but not addressed to an actual POP3 email account or email alias. The account can also catch misspellings of your email address and redirect the email to your account. Every hosting plan comes with one catch-all account as well as a certain number of POP3 email accounts.

CGI

(Common Gateway Interface) -- A set of rules that describe how a Web Server communicates with another piece of software on the same machine, and how the other piece of software (the 'CGI program') talks to the web server. Any piece of software can be a CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI standard. Usually a CGI program is a small program that takes data from a web server and does something with it, like putting the content of a form into an e-mail message, or turning the data into a database query.

CGI Script

CGI "scripts" are just scripts which use CGI. Hit counters, guest books, order forms and many other useful features can all be programmed with CGI scripts. All of our hosting plans include a local cgi-bin directory, where you can upload custom CGI scripts that you have written, as well as free scripts from around the net.

cgi-bin

The most common name of a directory on a web server in which CGI programs are stored. The 'bin' part of 'cgi-bin' is a shorthand version of 'binary', because once upon a time, most programs were referred to as 'binaries'. In real life, most programs found in cgi-bin directories are text files -- scripts that are executed by binaries located elsewhere on the server. While most programs using CGI are stored in this directory, it is not a requirement for using CGI.

Client

A software program that is used to contact and obtain data from a server software program on another computer, often across a great distance. Each client program is designed to work with one or more specific kinds of server programs, and each server requires a specific kind of client. A web browser and an FTP program are specific kinds of clients. See Also: Browser, Server.

Cookie

Cookies are little pieces of information sent by a Web Server to a Web Browser which, when stored, can help the site track the requests made by the user. Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the Browser's settings, the Browser may or may not accept the Cookie, and may save the Cookie for either a short or long time. Cookies might contain information such as login or registration information, online 'shopping cart' information, user preferences, etc.

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[D]

Data Transfer per Month

Your allotted amount of information that can be downloaded from your site for the month. Most of our customers stay within their monthly data transfer allottment.

DNS

Domain Name System. The system responsible for translating domain names into numeric IP addresses. The DNS maintains a list of all the domain names and distributes them throughout the world. See also IP address.

Domain Name

A domain name is a name (.com, .net, .org, etc) used to reference your web site's IP address. The domain name system was introduced as an easier way to navigate around the web. Domain Names are much easier for a user to remember (ie:mydomain.com) than a long ip address(ie: 101.40.233.68).

Disk space

The amount of storage space allowed for your website's files. Our plans range from defaults of 50 megabytes to 500 megabytes of disk space.

Domain Alias

A type of Domain Forwarding. Domain Aliases allow you to access the same page for many sites. This is useful when registering .com, .net, and .org domains at the same time. You only have to provide one account with hosting, and the other two will reference the same page, regardless of whether the user typed .com, .net, or .org.

Domain Name

The unique label that identifies a specific Web site, such as AZC.com. Typically, domain names convey information about a site and are easier to remember than the associated numeric IP address. When a user types a domain name in a browser, the DNS locates the registered domain name and translates that into a numeric IP address.

Domain Parking

The practice of letting a registered domain sit until you have need for a site. Domain parking is useful for people who want to register their domain idea and make sure no one else gets it before they are ready to host a site.

Domain Name Registration

The process of registering a recognizabe address by which users can find your site. Although the domain registration provides you with an address, you still need hosting in order to build a site.

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[E]

E-Commerce

Electronic Commerce. E-Commerce transactions include the buying and selling of goods and services online.

Email forwarding

Allows a user to consolidate email into one account for easy access. A typical forwarding account can forward mail received at you@yourdomain.com to and address at your isp, or even your free email account through Yahoo, Hotmail, etc.

E-mail

Electronic Mail -- Messages, usually text, sent from one person to another via computer.

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[F]

Flash and Shockwave

Web Development tools created by Macromedia that enable you to provide dynamic content for your Web visitors, complete with the latest in streaming and audio technology.

FrontPage

Microsoft FrontPage provides users a What You See is What You Get (WYSIWYG) HTML editor, includes a publish feature that enables users to transfer files to and from the Web server and supports advanced features such a guest books and hit counters.

FTP

File Transfer Protocol. A method used to transfer files across the Internet. FTP is typically used to upload and download files between your own computer and the Web server hosting your site. FTP requires a valid user name and password.

FAQ

(Frequently Asked Questions) -- FAQs are documents that list and answer the most common questions on a particular subject.

Fire Wall

A combination of hardware and software that create an electronic blocking mechanism that will not allow unauthorized access to a computer system.

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[G]

Gigabyte

1024 Megabytes

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[H]

hit

A 'hit' is a single request from a web browser for an individual item from a web server; thus in order for a web browser to display a page that contains 3 graphics, 4 'hits' would occur at the server: 1 for the HTML page, and one for each of the 3 graphics.

Home Page (or Homepage)

The default page your browser displays when it first starts up

Hosting

This term can be used to refer to the housing of a web site, email or a domain.

HTML

(HyperText Markup Language) -- The coding language used to create Hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web. With HTML you can specify that a block of text, or a word, is linked to another file on the Internet. HTML files are meant to be viewed using a World Wide Web Client Program, such as Netscape or Internet Explorer.

HTTP

(HyperText Transport Protocol) -- The protocol for moving hypertext files across the Internet. Requires a HTTP client program on one end, and an HTTP server program on the other end. HTTP is the most important protocol used in the World Wide Web (WWW).

Hyperlink (aka: Link)

Words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by a reader and which cause another document to be retrieved and displayed.

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[I]

IP address

The unique number assigned to every computer linked to the Internet. Your ISP provider assigns you an IP address each time you connect to the Internet. The DNS converts your numeric address to your domain name.

Internet

(Upper case I) The vast collection of inter-connected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60's and early 70's. The Internet now (July 1995) connects roughly 60,000 independent networks into a vast global internet.

internet

(Lower case i) Any time you connect 2 or more networks together, you have an internet - as in inter-national or inter-state.

Intranet

A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of internet protocol, but that is only for internal use.

IP Number

(Internet Protocol Number) -- Sometimes called a dotted quad. A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g.165.113.245.2 Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number.

ISP

(Internet Service Provider) -- An internet access provider. Examples include AOL, Earthlink, and MSN.

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[J]

Java

Java is a network-oriented programming language invented by Sun Microsystems that is specifically designed for writing programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs (called "Applets"), Web pages can include functions such as animations, calculators, and other fancy tricks.

JSP

Java Server Page. A technology similar to ASP that enables you to embed small programs, called servlets, in your Web pages. These programs run on the Web server and modify the content of your pages before the page is sent to the user.

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[K]

Kilobyte

A thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (210) bytes.

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[L]

LAN

(Local Area Network) -- A computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same building or floor of a building.

Login

Noun or a verb. Noun: The account name used to gain access to a computer system. Not a secret (contrast with Password). Verb: The act of entering into a computer system, e.g. Login to the WELL and then go to the GBN conference.

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[M]

Megabyte

A million bytes. A thousand kilobytes.

MIME

(Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) -- The standard for attaching non-text files to standard Internet mail messages. Non-text files include graphics, spreadsheets, formatted word-processor documents, sound files, etc. An email program is said to be MIME Compliant if it can both send and receive files using the MIME standard. When non-text files are sent using the MIME standard they are converted (encoded) into text - although the resulting text is not really readable. The MIME standard is also universally used by Web Servers to identify the files they are sending to Web Clients, in this way new file formats can be accommodated simply by updating the Browsers' list of pairs of MIME-Types and appropriate software for handling each type.

Modem

(MOdulator, DEModulator) -- A device that you connect to your computer and to a phone line, that allows the computer to talk to other computers through the phone system. Basically, modems do for computers what a telephone does for humans.

Modify (Domain Name)

The database that the TLD registries maintain need to be accurate in order for name resolution, billing, renewal notices and public records to be processed correctly. Typically modifications are required when nameservers need to change or the contacts change email or postal address or phone number.

MX Record: Mail Exchange

Mail Exchange record is part of the zone file used to designate which mail server machine should process email for a specific domain.

Merchant Account

A type of bank account that enables you to accept and process credit card payments online.

Meta tag

A hidden tag in your HTML code that describes some aspect of your site. When someone uses a search engine to find a Web site that provides information on a particular subject, the search engine uses the information contained in your pages' meta tags to determine if your site is a "match."

MIME Types

MIME, which stands for Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions, enables exchange of different file types and formats over the Internet.

MySQL

A freeware database program that adheres to SQL standards.

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[N]

Name Servers

Computers that help to map domain names to their respective IP addresses. Netscape® A web browser alternative to Microsoft's Internet Explorer. Netscape Navigator was one of the most popular browsers in the mid Nineties.

Network

Any time you connect 2 or more computers together so that they can share resources, you have a computer network. Connect 2 or more networks together and you have an internet.

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[P]

Password Protected Directory

A directory on your site that requires the viewer to enter a username and password before accessing. Our standard plan, and higher plans, support Directory Password Protection.

Perl

One of the most popular languages for creating CGI scripts. We provide a Perl interpreter, but not support for writing Perl scripts.

PHP

PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor An open-source scripting language and interpreter. PHP is used primarily on UNIX Web servers and is an effective alternative to Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP) technology.

POP / POP3

Post Office Protocol 3. A method for retrieving email through an email client, such as Outlook or Eudora.

Propagation

The process of updating nameservers around the world when your ip address, nameservers, or zone record changes. Propogation can take anywhere from 24 to 72 hours to fully update.

Plug-in

A small piece of software installed into your browser that allows you to view content of differing formats. Common Plugins include Quicktime and Windows Media Players, Shockwave players, and Real Audio/Video players.

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[R]

Raw Log Files

Files that contain detailed information about your site's activity in raw Web server format. Log files can help you find out how popular your site currently is.

RealAudio® and RealVideo®

The Internet streaming audio and video delivery systems developed by RealNetworks. Both the browser and the server must have RealAudio/Video components installed in order to work.

Registrar

A company that has been certified to register domain names. There are a limited number of registrars permitted to access and modify the master database of domain names maintained by InterNic. The organization ICANN is responsible for certifying companies as domain name registrars. A registrar is not the same as a Web host.

Register (Domain Name)

Since every domain is unique, registries have been set up to assign domains to individuals and organziations. When a domain is registered with the appropriate registry, that domain is assigned and becomes no longer available for anyone else to use.

Registrant (Domain Name)

The person/business that will be using the registered domain name.

Registry (Domain Name)

An organization responsible for assigning domain names for the TLD that they manage.

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[S]

Search Engine

A program that searches documents for specified keywords and returns a list of documents where the keywords were found. Internet search engines use the information contained in your site's Meta tags to generate an index of sites. Well known search engines include Yahoo!, Excite, AltaVista and Google.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

A method of ensuring that information submitted through your Web site is secure and cannot be accessed by unauthorized users. Information submitted via an SSL-secured form is transmitted in an encrypted state. SSL is most commonly used for online credit card transactions.

Spam

The term for unsolicited mass email, also known as UCE (Unsolicited Commercial Email).

SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. A protocol for sending email messages across the Internet. It is used in conjunction with both POP3 and IMAP, protocols that enable you to download messages from a mail server to your computer. SMTP is used for out going mail while POP3 and IMAP are used for incoming mail. Hostway does not support IMAP.

Statistics Report

Detailed information regarding your Web site, including the number of hits, the source of those hits, most popular pages and amount of data transferred, as well as other useful information.

Subdomain

Also known as a third-level domain. Domain names are composed of at least two levels, a top-level domain and a second-level domain. The top-level domain is the suffix or extension attached to Internet domain names (for example, .com, .net and .org).

Server

A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software is running.

Shockwave

Shockwave, produced by Macromedia, allows you to view new forms of entertainment on the Web, such as games, music, rich-media chat, interactive product demos, and e-merchandising applications

SMTP

(Simple Mail Transport Protocol) -- The main protocol used to send electronic mail on the Internet. SMTP consists of a set of rules for how a program sending mail and a program receiving mail should interact.Almost all Internet email is sent and received by clients and servers using SMTP, thus if one wanted to set up an email server on the Internet one would look for email server software that supports SMTP.

SQL

(Structured Query Language) -- A specialized programming language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific application will have its own version of SQL implementing features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL.

SSL

(Secure Sockets Layer) -- A protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet. SSL is most commonly used in online stores for credit card transactions. URL's that begin with 'https' indicate that an SSL connection will be used.

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[T]

TCP/IP

(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) -- This is the suite of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software is now available for every major kind of computer operating system.

Telnet

The command and program used to login from one Internet site to another. The telnet command/program gets you to the login: prompt of another host.

Terabyte

1024 gigabytes.

Terminal

A device that allows you to send commands to a computer somewhere else. At a minimum, this usually means a keyboard and a display screen and some simple circuitry. Usually you will use terminal software in a personal computer - the software pretends to be (emulates) a physical terminal and allows you to type commands to a computer somewhere else.

Terminal Server

A special purpose computer that has places to plug in many modems on one side, and a connection to a LAN or host machine on the other side. Thus the terminal server does the work of answering the calls and passes the connections on to the appropriate node. Most terminal servers can provide PPP or SLIP services if connected to the Internet.

Top Level Domain: (TLD)

A Top Level Domain (TLD) is the uppermost in the hierarchy of domain names. For example, communitech.net is our domain name. The "net" is considered the TLD and the "communitech.net" is considered the second level domain. Together they form a domain name which is unique. There are two types of TLDs. The most common type is the Generic or Global TLDs which include .COM, .NET, .ORG, .MIL, .INT and .EDU. There is a possibility that new gTLDs will be introduced in the near future. National or ccTLDs are two letter country code domains that are managed by a registry designated and controlled by each specific country. Each registry might have differing prices, residency requirements and structure.

Transfer (Domain Name)

On occasion, domains are sold to another organization or sometimes the name of a company might change. Most registries require a letter of permission from the old owner to hand over control to the new owner. The procedures for Transfer of ownership will depend on the registry.

Traffic

Each time visitors access a Web page, image, audio, video or other element on your site, traffic is generated. Your aggregate traffic is the sum of all outward-bound, inward-bound, email and FTP traffic.

Third-level domain

Domain names are composed of at least two levels, a top-level domain and a second-level domain. The top-level domain, also referred to as TLD, is the suffix or extension attached to Internet domain names. There are a limited number of predefined TLDs, such as .com, Net and .org. A second-level domain (SLD) is the portion of a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that identifies the specific and unique administrative owner associated with an Internet Protocol address (IP address). The second-level domain name includes the top-level domain name.

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[U]

URL

Uniform Resource Locator. The standard way to display an address on the World Wide Web (WWW).

UNIX

A computer operating system (the basic software running on a computer, underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets). UNIX is designed to be used by many people at the same time (it is multi-user) and has TCP/IP built-in. It is the most common operating system for servers on the Internet.

URL

(Uniform Resource Locator) -- The standard way to give the address of any resource on the Internet that is part of the World Wide Web (WWW). A URL looks like this: http://www.communitech.net/glossary/ or telnet://anywhere.you.want or news:new.newusers.questions etc. The most common way to use a URL is to enter into a WWW browser program, such as Netscape or Internet Explorer.

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[W]

Web-based email

A method for accessing email messages through a Web browser using HTTP. Some third party webmail access providers include Mail2web.com, Squirrell Mail, and Horde.

Web

See: WWW

Whois

Most registries maintain a database of domain names and their associated contact information. Users can query these databases through a program called Whois.

WWW

(World Wide Web) -- Two meanings - First, loosely used: the whole constellation of resources that can be accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP, telnet, USENET, WAIS and some other tools. Second, the universe of hypertext servers (HTTP servers) which are the servers that allow text, graphics, sound files, etc. to be mixed together.

WYSIWYG

What You See Is What You Get. The term used for Web design applications that display HTML documents on screen as they will appear in a Web browser. These applications make it possible for you to create Web pages without learning the HTML programming language.

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[X]

XML

Extensible markup language. A language used to structure content so that it can be exchanged with different applications.

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[Z]

Zone file

The group of files that reside on the domain host or nameserver. The zone file designates a domain, its subdomains and mail server.

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